PSALMS: The Enemies by Dietrich Bonhoeffer

The Prayer Book of the Bible

The Enemies by Dietrich Bonhoeffer

From Psalms

No section of the Psalter causes us greater difficulty today than the so-called imprecatory psalms.  With shocking frequency their thoughts penetrate the entire Psalter (5, 7,. 9, 10, 13, 16, 21, 23, 28, 31, 35, 36, 40, 41, 44, 52, 54, 55, 58, 59, 68, 69, 70, 71, 137, and others).  Every attempt to pray these psalms seems doomed to failure.  They seem to be an example of what people think of as the religious first stage toward the New Testament.  Christ on the cross prays for his enemies and teaches us to do the same.  How can we still, with these psalms, call for the wrath of God against our enemies?  The question is therefore: Can the imprecatory psalms be understood as God’s word for us and as the prayer of Jesus Christ?  Can we as Christians pray these psalms?  Note carefully again that we do not ask about possible motives, which we can never fathom anyway, but rather about the content of the prayer.

The enemies referred to here are enemies of the cause of God, who lay hands on us for the sake of God.  It is therefore nowhere a matter of personal conflict.  Nowhere does the one who prays these psalms want to take revenge into his own hands.  He calls for the wrath of God alone (cf. Romans 12:19).  Therefore he must dismiss from his own mind all thought of personal revenge; he must be free from his own thirst for revenge.  Otherwise, the vengeance would not be seriously commanded from God.  This means that only the one who is himself innocent in relation to his enemy can leave the vengeance to God.  The prayer for the vengeance of God is the prayer for the execution of his righteousness in the judgment of sin.  This judgment must be made public if God is to stand by his word.  It must also be promulgated among those whom it concerns.  I myself, with my sin, belong under this judgment.  I have no right to want to hinder this judgment.  It must be fulfilled for God’s sake and it has been fulfilled, certainly, in wonderful ways.

God’s vengeance did not strike the sinners, but the one sinless man who stood in the sinners’ place, namely God’s own Son.  Jesus Christ bore the wrath of God, for the execution of which the psalm prays.  He stilled God’s wrath toward sin and prayed in the hour of the execution of the divine judgment: “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do!”  No other than he, who himself bore the wrath of God, could pray in this way.  That was the end of all phony thoughts about the love of God which do not take sin seriously.  God hates and redirects his enemies to the only righteous one, and this one asks forgiveness for them.  Only in the cross of Jesus Christ is the love of God to be found.

Thus the imprecatory psalm leads to the cross of Jesus and to the love of God which forgives enemies.  I cannot forgive the enemies of God out of my own resources.  Only the crucified Christ can do that, and I through him.  Thus the carrying out of vengeance becomes grace for all men in Jesus Christ.

Certainly it is important to distinguish in relation to these psalms whether I stand in the time of promise or in the time of fulfillment, but this distinction is true for all psalms.  I pray the imprecatory psalms in the certainty of their marvelous fulfillment.  I leave the vengeance to God and ask him to execute his righteousness to all his enemies, knowing that God has remained true to himself and has himself secured justice in his wrathful judgment on the cross, and that this wrath has become grace and joy for us.  Jesus Christ himself requests the execution of the wrath of God on his body, and thus he leads me back daily to the gravity and the grace of his cross for me and all enemies of God.

Even today I can believe the love of God and forgive my enemies only by going back to the cross of Christ, to the carrying out of the wrath of God.  The cross of Jesus is valid for all men.  Whoever opposes him, whoever corrupts the word of the cross of Jesus on which God’s wrath must be executed, must bear the curse of God some time or another.  The New Testament speaks with great clarity concerning this and does not distinguish itself at all in this respect from the Old Testament, but it also speaks of the joy of the church in that day on which God will execute his final judgment (Galatians 1:8f; 1 Corinthians 16:22; Revelation 18; 19; 20:11).  In this way the crucified Jesus teaches us to pray the imprecatory psalms correctly.

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